- A -
- To suck up or take up. A sponge absorbs water.
- Acre :
- Unit of area mesurement that equals to 4046,87m2 or 0.4 ha. We use it to mesure very large areas of land.
- Adjustment to environmental conditions. Young people adapt well
to change. The black spruce is well adapted to Quebec's cold climate
- Adventitious (bud or root)
- Refers to plant structures arising at unusual places, such as on
another structure when it reaches a certain stage of development.
- Allowable cut
- A maximum amount of timber that can be cut per year in a given area
in perpetuity, the cut being offset by annual growth.
- Alternate (alternate leaves)
- Arranged singly along a twig or shoot. The cherry tree has alternate
- Living on trees. Arboreal lichen can be found on some trees.
- Having a pleasant odor. Thyme and savory are aromatic herbs.
- B -
- Biological control
- The use of natural predators and parasites to reduce the populations
of insects that ravage forests. The use of natural agents, such as fungi,
bacteria, or viruses, to control or fight against undesirable species.
- A small tree branch. A grouping of branchlets comprises a bough.
- Brush cutting
- The action of removing vegetation that stifles regeneration so that
new plants receive adequate light.
- The initiation of growth from a bud; when a plant's buds open.
- Dense shrubs and stands of small trees of normally unmerchantable
- C -
- A layer of cells between the wood and the secondary phloem where
wood is formed.
- Competing vegetation
- Plants that rapidly take hold in a clearing (area with no trees)
and which impede the growth of the tree crop.
- Comprising many different elements. The forest ecosystem is complex.
- Compost (noun)
- A mixture of organic matter used as fertilizer. An increasing number
of people are making compost at home to fertilize their gardens.
- Compost (verb)
- To produce compost by allowing farm or domestic waste (table scraps
and the like) to decay, sometimes with the addition of minerals.
- A conical fruit in which the seeds are hidden under relatively hard
scales arranged around a central stem.
- A cone-bearing tree or shrub whose leaves are needles or scales.
Conifers produce their seeds within cones.
- To change into crystals. Water crystalizes into snow and ice when
exposed to sufficient cold.
- Cut with soil and regeneration protection
- Harvesting carried out taking specific measures to prevent damage
to young trees and to the soil.
- D -
- Deciduous (foliage)
- Said of plants whose leaves are shed annually.
- The act of finding or detecting signs of injury or harm in a forest
by fire, insects, disease, or competing plants (plants that hinder the
crop to be produced).
- The decline of a particular species as a result of environmental
stress that may lead to the death of trees.
- A plant whose male and female flowers are on different trees.
- Domestic waste
- The waste or garbage produced by the members of a family and which
would be thrown out.
- The state in which organs, especially those of plants, do not grow
for a period of time due to climatic or physiological conditions. It could
be called the plant version of hibernation.
- A prolonged period without rain that leaves the ground, and often
even watercourses, dry. Severe drought in the summer results in forest
- E -
- A portion of the growth ring produced during the spring, when the
tree's water requirement is high to produce buds. Also know as springwood.
- A system formed by the interaction of a community of animals and
plants with its environment.
- Said of an organism (insect, virus, etc.) that is naturally present
in a limited area (opposite of epidemic).
- Relating to an epidemic, which is the rapid development of a population
(plant, animal, virus) to an extremely high and generally harmful level
for the forest.
- A family of plants and shrubs that includes blueberries and Labrador
- The act or process of eroding or eating away slowly. Erosion is caused
by a range of natural structures or occurrences, such as rain, watercourses,
wind, and glaciers, that causes soil deterioration. Bare ground erodes
more easily than one covered with vegetation.
- To produce evaporation, that is, change from a liquid state into
a vapor. In a figurative sense, one often hears expressions such as "his
hopes for the future evaporated."
- The transformation of a liquid into a vapor. Water turns to vapor
- Said of a forest or stand in which there is little difference in
age among the trees.
- F -
- The act or process of enriching the soil. Both chemical and organic
substances are used as fertilizers.
- To make fertile or enrich the soil to increase or improve crop yield
or growth. Fields are fertilized with manure in the fall.
- A product that is used to enrich the soil to increase or improve
crop yield or growth.
- The plant life (including trees and shrubs) growing in a specific
- Forest ecology
- The study of forests and their ecology, including the application
of soil science, botany, zoology, and the like to forestry. Also referred
to as silvics.
- Forest management
- The study of the administration, direction, and organization of
a wooded area.
- Forest mensuration
- The measurement of volume, growth, and development of trees and
- G -
- The practice of making an incision around a living stem, branch,
or root in order to kill the structure. Also known as deadening. Insects
and rodents can also injure or kill a tree by girdling it.
- Green manure
- An herbaceous crop plowed under when green to enrich the soil.
- Growth inhibitor
- A substance that inhibits or halts the growth of trees.
- The act or process of growing or developing when referring to an
organism. Tree growth is slow.
- H -
- A tree whose leaves drop in the fall, as opposed to evergreens or
conifers, which have needles (fir, spruce) or scales (cedar). The maple,
lilac, and oak are examples of hardwood trees.
- Severity, extreme rigor. The harshness of winter refers to periods
of intense cold that are hard to withstand.
- The act of removing trees from the forest for a variety of uses,
such as making paper or lumber.
- The hard, inner layers of wood which, in the growing tree, have
ceased to contain living cells. It is often colored by tannin in hardwood
trees and by resin in softwood species. The only function of heartwood
is to support the tree.
- A unit of area measurement equal to 10 000 square metres used to
measure very large areas of land. One hectare measures 100 metres by 100
metres and equals 2.5 acres.
- Said of plants that like light or sunlight.
- Herbaceous (plant)
- Said of a plant that does not contain wood. Such plants are generally
green and soft.
- The organism on which another organism (parasite) grows and derives
- The top layer of soil produced by the decomposition of vegetable
or animal matter. Dead leaves and other plant matter gradually convert
- I -
- A substance that destroys insects.
- K -
- A dry, one-seeded, winged fruit that can be carried on the wind.
Also referred to as samara.
- L -
- An area for the burial of solid waste.
- The more or less rapid downslope gravitational movement of a body
- The immature, wingless, feeding stage of an insect that undergoes
- A portion of the growth ring produced during the latter part of
the growing season, such as later summer and early fall, when the tree's
water requirement is lower. Also know as summerwood.
- The slender stalk by which a leave is attached to the stem.
- A complex organism composed of a fungus in symbiotic union with
an alga that is very resistant to cold, heat, and drought.
- The maturing of fruits and transformation of young branches into
wood that occurs at the end of summer in preparation for winter.
- M -
- Mature (stand or forest)
- Having reached its age of utilization.
- A layer of straw, bark, or other plant matter used to conserve moisture
in the soil, to protect certain fruits from rotting through contact with
the soil, and to inhibit the growth of other plants, such as weeds.
- N -
- The very narrow, somewhat pointed leaves on some conifers. Fir needles
- O -
- Opposed (opposed leaves)
- Said of leaves that appear in pairs (by two) on opposite sides of
the leafstalk. The sugar maple has opposed leaves.
- Organic soil
- Soil that comes from decomposed living matter. Humus - comprised
of leaves and other plant waste, insects, decomposed animals, excrement,
and so on - is an organic soil.
- A complex, organized body of parts functioning together.
- Overmature (stand)
- A very old stand in which tree growth is slight or has stopped.
- P -
- Paired keys
- A double key. A key is a one-seeded fruit with a dry, flat wing.
A paired key contains two seeds.
- Said of plants that have a life cycle of at least two years.
- Any organism that causes injury or loss to a forest. Insects and
mammals are pests.
- A substance used to fight against harmful animals or plants.
- The synthesis of organic matter in the presence of sunlight by plants.
Chlorophyll is essential to photosynthesis.
- Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of certain
plants, their spores, or seed. Arboricides (tree killer) kill trees
(woody plants); herbicides kill weeds; and fungicides kill fungi.
- Any of various biological substances that produce color in the tissues
of organisms, especially plants. Carotene is the yellow pigment that
gives color to carrots.
- Pioneer species
- A plant capable of taking hold and growing in treeless areas. Such
plants are replaced by others later on. The quaking aspen is a pioneer
- The female structure of a flower, located at its center.
- The act of creating a forest by planting seedlings (young trees).
- A dust-like material comprised of microscopic particles produced
by flowers that serves as the fertilizing agent (male role) in flowering
- The action of treating or preparing by some particular process in
order to change or modify something's form, shape, or appearance. Paper
is made by processing wood pulp.
- R -
- To treat or process waste so as to make it suitable for reuse. New
paper and cardboard can be produced by recycling paper.
- The renewal of a forest. Trees begin to grow again.
- The act of freeing seedlings (young trees) by eliminating plants
that overtop or closely surround them.
- Reproductive system
- The complex system of organs in males and females dedicated to the
function of reproducing the species, that is, living organisms giving life
to organisms of the same species. For example, pairs of mammals of the
opposite sex mate, with the female giving birth to the young. Trees, however,
have male and/or female flowers; reproduction begins when the pollen is
conveyed to the female flower.
- A plant secretion from certain trees, such as the pine and fir.
- Root hair
- A hair-like growth on the root which absorbs water and minerals
for the plant.
- Root system
- The underground portion of a tree, including the roots and root
- S -
- Sandy soil
- A soil that is composed of very fine inorganic particles, such as
- The outer layer of wood in a living tree (between the bark and the
heartwood (duramen). Also known as alburnum.
- The act or process of breaking up the ground in preparation for
- Seed tree
- A tree selected for seed collection or left after harvesting to
produce seeds that will germinate and create a new forest.
- A young plant grown from a seed.
- Selection method
- A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged
structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in
small groups or strips. The selection method is carried out in sugarbushes
- Said of a plant that does not grow well in the shade.
- Said of plants that can thrive in the shade.
- A woody plant smaller than a tree that often does not have a main
trunk. The Canada yew and leatherwood are examples of shrubs.
- Site preparation
- Treatment, such as plowing or scarifying, that modifies the site
to provide favorable conditions for natural or artificial regeneration.
- Soil drainage
- The natural process of moisture loss from soil as runoff or groundwater.
- The male organ of the flower.
- A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition,
age, arrangement, or condition, to be distinguishable from the forest or
other growth on adjoining areas.
- The tip of a pistil which is receptive to pollen grains. Pollen
grains stick to its surface.
- A microscopic pore containing a tiny hole called an ostiole, through
which gases are exchanged. Plants breathe through their stomata.
- The art of coordinating actions to achieve a desired end.
- Strip cutting
- The removal of the crop in strips in one or more operations, generally
for encouraging regeneration. Seeds from mature trees in the strips help
speed the regeneration.
- The way in which parts of a whole are arranged. The structure of
a plant, a piece of furniture, a book, and so on.
- A shoot arising from a root bud growing under the surface of the
- A stand or forest made up predominantly of sugar maples and red
- Susceptibility (stand)
- The potential for a stand to be affected or destroyed by insects
- Sylvicultural regime
- Treatments designed to promote and achieve specific stand management
- T -
- Any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or any
- An aggregate of similar cells having the same function. The tissue
in a flower stem is different from that in the flower's petals.
- Tree breeding
- The application of genetic principles to the improvement of trees,
such as to solve a specific problem or in order to obtain a given product.
- U -
- Said of a forest or stand in which there is a range of difference
in age among the trees.
- V -
- A bladder-like cyst or sac (similar to a blister) that contains
a fluid. The fir has resin-filled vesicules in its bark.
- An ultramicroscopic infectious (capable of infecting with disease)
- Vulnerability (of a stand)
- The sensitivity or susceptibility of a stand to be easily affected
or even destroyed such as by insects or disease.
- W -
- X -
- Y -
- Z -